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interstitial cystitis &
bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS)
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Glossary of terms: G  
Gabapentin An anticonvulsant medication originally developed to treat certain types of epilepsy but that has been found to be useful in the treatment of neuropathic pain. Experimentally used to treat IC and other genitourinary pain and may have good results in some patients with severe pain.  
GAG GAG: glycosaminoglycan layer. The top mucin layer of the bladder lining that serves as a protective layer. It consists 50/50 of chondroitin sulphate and sodium hyaluronate. It protects the inner layers of the bladder from the irritating components of urine.  
Gastrointestinal disorders Gastrointestinal disorders (abbreviation GI) are disorders affecting the digestive tract (including stomach and large and small intestines). Gastrointestinal disorders are among the most common disorders associated with PBS/IC. These may be divided into two groups: irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and the inflammatory bowel disease group comprising Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Symptoms of IBS include cramping abdominal pain, diarrhoea and constipation and a bloated feeling due to gas formation, while weight loss, blood in the stools and diarrhoea at night are more indicative of inflammatory bowel disease.  
Gene A gene is the basic unit of heredity located at a specific place of a specific chromosome. The Human Genome Project has estimated that human beings have between 20,000 and 25,000 genes. Every individual has two copies of each gene, one inherited from the father and one from the mother. Genes are responsible for determining specific characteristics or traits.  
Generic Generic: in terms of a drug name, generic refers to a drug not protected by a trademark. Generic also refers to the scientific name as opposed to the brand name of a drug.  
Gene therapy Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to treat or prevent disease by either replacing a faulty gene with a health version of the gene, or knocking out gene that is not functioning correctly, or introducing a new gene into the body to help fight a disease.  
General practitioner General practitioner: family doctor providing primary care.  
Genetic disorder A genetic disorder is a disorder caused by an abnormality in a person’s DNA, the genetic material which controls heredity. These abnormalities can vary from a change or mutation in a single gene to variations or alterations in an entire chromosome or set of chromosomes.  
Genetic engineering Genetic engineering refers to the controlled modification or manipulation of genes in an organism with the aim of improving that organism in some way.  
Genitals, genitalia Genitals, genitalia: sex organs including the penis and testicles in men and the vagina and vulva in women.  
Genitourinary Genitourinary: concerning the genital organs and urinary tract.  
Geriatrician Geriatrician: Specialist who deals with old age and the health of elderly people.  
Gland A Gland is an organ or structure capable of secreting internally or externally. Endocrine glands release substances directly into the blood stream while exocrine glands release the substances into a duct or opening to the inside or outside of the body.  
Glomerulations Glomerulations: pinpoint bleeding also known as petechial haemorrhages in the bladder wall seen during cystoscopy following hydrodistension in some patients. Once considered a hallmark of IC, it is now known that not all IC patients have glomerulations and that glomerulations may be observed in people who do not have IC.  
Glomerulonephritis Glomerulonephritis is inflammation of the membrane tissue in the kidney that serves as a filter to remove waste matter and superfluous fluid from the blood. Can lead to kidney failure if untreated.  
Glucocorticoid Glucocorticoid: Any of a group of steroid hormones that occur naturally in the adrenal cortex as cortisone and hydrocortisone and produced synthetically as e.g. prednisone and prednisolone. It has anti-inflammatory properties.  
Granulation tissue Granulation tissue: Tissue formed in response to an injury, an essential part of the healing process  
Granulocytes Granulocytes are white blood cells filled with granules containing potent chemicals that allow the cells to kill and digest microorganisms or to produce inflammatory reactions. Neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils are examples of granulocytes.  
Groin Groin is the crease or fold on either side of the front of the body where the thighs join the trunk.  
Guideline Guideline: a principle laid down to be used for the purpose of directing or standardizing as a recommendation or guide to procedures to be followed.  
Gynaecologist Gynaecologist (US: gynecologist): a medical specialist dealing with female reproductive health.  
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