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Glossary of terms: E  
 
EAU European Association of Urology.  
EC The European Commission or European Community.  
Efferent nerve An efferent nerve carries nerve impulses away from the central nervous system towards other parts of the body, i.e. organs, muscles and skin.  
Efficacy Effectiveness for the intended use.  
Ejaculation Release of semen from the male penis during sexual climax.  
Ejaculatory fluid Semen, comprising sperm and seminal plasma.  
EMDA Electromotive Drug Administration. A method of delivering drugs intravesically into the bladder wall using an electric current. Higher concentrations of the drug can be delivered into the bladder wall than by conventional methods. The rate of drug administration is fully controllable simply by varying the intensity of the electric current. Can be used for local anaesthesia of the bladder for cystodistension (stretching of the bladder for diagnostic and treatment purposes in IC patients).  
EMEA European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA) is the agency which evaluates applications made by pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies to market medicines to doctors and patients across the EU.  
EMG Electromyogram. A test carried out to record nerve impulses to muscles and the response of those muscles, for the purpose of diagnosing faults in nerve conduction and muscle contraction.  
Endocrine system The endocrine system is a collection of glands that secrete hormones necessary for normal bodily functions. These hormones regulate metabolism, sexual development and growth. The glands secrete the hormones directly into the bloodstream where they are transported to organs and tissues throughout the body. Examples of endocrine glands are: thyroid gland (produces thyroid hormone), parathyroid glands (produce parathyroid hormone), adrenal glands produce adrenaline, aldosterone and cortisol), neuroendocrine glands of the pancreas (endocrine cells secrete insulin, glucagons and others), pituitary gland (secretes thyroid stimulating hormone TSH, adrenocotropic hormone ACTH, follicle stimulating hormone FSH and others). See also exocrine glands.  
Endometriosis Endometriosis is an enigmatic and debilitating disease affecting females in their reproductive years. The cause of endometriosis is unknown. Genetic, environmental and immunologic risk factors have been suggested in studies. All urine cultures are negative and the symptoms do not respond to antibiotic treatment. The name comes from the term “endometrium” which is the normal layer of tissue that lines the uterus. Each month in the menstrual cycle it builds up and is shed, responding to the rise and fall of estrogen and progesterone produced by the ovaries during the reproductive cycle. In endometriosis, endometrial tissue is found in other parts of the body, in places where it is not supposed to grow. Most endometriosis is found in the pelvic cavity: on or under the ovaries, behind the uterus, on the tissues that hold the uterus in place, on the intestines or bladder. In very rare cases, endometrial tissue can grow in the lungs or other parts of the body. If it occurs on the ovaries, it may cause cysts to form: so-called ‘chocolate cysts’. Since symptoms of endometriosis can also closely resemble those of painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis, it is important to avoid the wrong diagnosis.  
Endometrium (see also endometriosis) The mucous membrane which lines the uterus. It develops in preparation for the implantation of a fertilised egg. It is shed during menstruation.
 
Endorphins Neurotransmitters found in the brain that reduce the sensation of pain similar to the effect of morphine. In addition to regulating pain, endorphins are believed to play a role in giving a feeling of euphoria or happiness, appetite control and the release of sex hormones.  
Endoscopy    
Enuresis The involuntary passing of urine. The most common form is nocturnal enuresis or bedwetting.  
Enzyme A molecule, generally a protein, produced by living cells, which facilitates chemical reactions necessary for cell growth and reproduction.  
Eosinophil Eosinophils - or eosinophilic granulocytes to give them their correct name - are white blood cells that are active and accumulate in allergic diseases, parasitic infections and other disorders including allergic reactions to medication, autoimmune diseases, asthma, hay fever. The name eosinophil comes from the fact that these cells readily absorb the red dye eosin when examined microscopically.  
Eosinophilic cystitis A rare inflammatory bladder disorder of unknown cause characterised by “transmural” inflammation (= inflammation through all layers of the bladder wall) and numerous eosinophils. Urine cultures are usually negative. EC can mimic many other urological conditions. Symptoms of eosinophilic cystitis may include: frequent urination, blood in the urine, painful urination, urinary retention, frequent urination at night, suprapubic pain, bladder lesions, oedema of the bladder wall, fibrotic, shrunken bladder, upper urinary tract dilatation.  
Epidemiological research Epidemiological research concerns the study into how often diseases occur in defined groups of the population and why. The information obtained is used to plan and evaluate strategies to prevent illness and to serve as a guideline for the management of patients who already have this disease.  
Epidural anaesthesia Epidural anaesthesia is a form of regional anaesthesia or nerve block that can be used as the sole anaesthetic for procedures involving the lower abdomen, pelvis, perineum and lower limbs or as a form of pain relief. It allows continuous anaesthesia to be maintained following insertion of an epidural catheter into the epidural space which is part of the vertebral canal and where nerve roots are located near the spinal cord.  
Epithelium Epithelium (urinary bladder epithelium) is a thin layer of tissue that covers the inner or outer surfaces of organs, glands and other structures within the body. The urinary bladder epithelium forms the top layer of the bladder lining.  
EPS Expressed Prostatic Secretions.  
Erectile dysfunction Erectile dysfunction (ED): sometimes called “impotence”, is the repeated inability to get or maintain an erection firm enough for sexual intercourse. ED can be a total inability to achieve an erection, an inconsistent ability to do so, or a tendency to sustain only brief erections.  
Erythrocyte Red blood cell.  
Escherichia coli Escherichia coli (E. coli) is one of the main species of bacteria inhabiting the large intestine. Some strains can cause illness, for example traveller’s diarrhoea. E. coli can also cause problems if it enters the urinary tract via the urethra, causing a urinary tract infection (cystitis). This is why females are advised to "wipe from front to back" so as to reduce the risk of bacteria from the bowel entering the urethra. The bacteria can also be spread to the urinary tract through sexual intercourse.  
Estrogen Estrogen (also oestrogen): A group of female sex hormones which are produced by the ovaries. The three main naturally occurring estrogens in women are: estradiol, estriol and estrone. Estrogen is responsible for many female sex characteristics such as breast and genital development, promotes the menstrual cycle, and maintains the lining of the vagina. In women, estrogens are present in significantly higher levels during the reproductive age. It is also a hormone used as an estrogen (replacement) therapy and in some contraceptives.  
Etiology Etiology: (also aetiology). The cause or causes of a disease or the study of these.
 
EU European Union  
EURORDIS European Organization for Rare Diseases  
Exocrine glands Exocrine glands: glands that secrete their products (secretions) into a system of ducts, ultimately leading to the outside of the body. They include sweat glands, salivary glands, mammary glands, prostate gland and many glands in the digestive system. See also endocrine system.
 
Extrapolation Extrapolation: the term used for determining the appropriate dosage of a drug in a person based on the approved dosage. For children, this involves reducing an adult dose proportionate to either relative weight or body surface area.  
     
       
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